HAETAE: Post-Quantum Digital Signature

HAETAE is a module lattice-based signature scheme for shorter and easily maskable signatures. While based on the Fiat-Shamir with Aborts paradigm, like the NIST-selected Dilithium signature scheme, our design choices target an improved complexity/compactness compromise that is highly relevant for many space-limited scenarios such as DNSSEC. We primarily focus on reducing signature and verification key sizes so that signatures fit into one TCP or UDP datagram while preserving a high level of security against a variety of attacks. 

Design rationale

Fiat-Shamir with Aborts

HAETAE follows the "Fiat-Shamir with Aborts" paradigm, like Dilithium or BLISS, which guarantees quantum security (in the QROM).

Module structure

To offer more flexibility and smaller sizes without losing in terms of implementation efficiency, HAETAE relies on module lattices. Varying the security and updating the parameter sets is easily achievable with the size-speed trade-offs. 

Bimodal distribution

We use a bimodal distribution for the rejection sampling to reduce the sizes, like in the BLISS signature scheme, instead of a "unimodal" distribution like Dilithium. 

Hyperball uniform sampling

We use uniform distributions over hyperballs, recently introduced in [DFPS22], instead of the SCA-vulnerable discrete Gaussian distributions used in BLISS. 

Compact compression & encoding

We further reduce the key and the signature sizes by truncating the verification key and by compressing and encoding the signature. 

On/off-line acceleration

HAETAE can be accelerated significantly by precomputing the hyperball samples. 


The performance of reference implementation is given as follows. All benchmarks were obtained on one core of an Intel Core i7-10700k, with TurboBoost and hyperthreading disabled from the reference code of HAETAE v2.0. All cycle counts reported are the median of the cycle counts of 1,000 executions of the respective functions.  





Specifications and Implementations


Jung Hee Cheon, Hyeongmin Choe, Julien Devevey, Tim Güneysu, Dongyeon Hong, Markus Krausz, Georg Land, Marc Möller, Damien Stehlé, MinJune Yi, In IACR eprint 2023. [eprint]


The HAETAE team consists of the following members

Seoul National Univ. (KR)

CryptoLab Inc. (KR)

Jung Hee Cheon

Junbum Shin


Ruhr Univ. Bochum (DE)

Tim Güneysu

Georg Land

Markus Krausz

Marc Möller (from KpqC round 2)

CryptoLab Inc. (FR)

The Affiliated Institute of ETRI (KR)

Dongyeon Hong